The Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations and growth prospects may be affected by risks and uncertainties directly or indirectly pertaining to the Group’s businesses. The risk factors set out below are those that could result in the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects differing materially from expected or historical results. Such factors are by no means exhaustive or comprehensive, and there may be other risks in addition to those shown below which are not known to the Group or which may not be material now but could turn out to be material in the future.

Property Developments

There exist general risks inherent in property development and in the ownership of properties, including, among other things, rising construction costs, risks that financing for developments may not be available on favourable terms, that construction may not be completed on schedule or within budget especially due to issues such as aging workforce, labour shortage, skills mismatch and succession gap as well as the escalation of material prices, that long-term financing may not be available on completion of construction, that developed properties may not be sold or leased on profitable terms, that there will be intense competition from other developers or property owners which may lead to vacant properties or an inability to sell or rent properties on favourable terms, that purchasers or tenants may default, that properties held for rental purpose will need to be renovated, repaired and re-let on a periodic basis, that it may not be possible to renew leases or re-let spaces when existing leases expire, and that the property market conditions are subject to changes in environmental laws and regulations and zoning laws and other governmental rules and fiscal policies. Property values and rental values are also affected by factors such as the changes in the relationships between countries or sovereign states, the state of the local economy, political and societal developments, governmental regulations and changes in planning or tax laws, levels of interest rates and consumer prices, the overall supply of properties, and the imposition of governmental measures to dampen property prices. Taxes, levies, stamp duties and similar taxes or charges payable for the vacancy of first-hand private residential units, the property management services, the sale or transfer of residential properties, as well as policies and rules on profit repatriation may be imposed by the relevant authorities from time to time.

Investment in property is generally illiquid, which may limit the ability of the Group to timely monetise property assets.

Supply of land is subject to the development of land policies in different markets. Acquisition of land in Hong Kong, the Mainland and overseas markets may be subject to various regulatory requirements or restrictions as well as changes in demand and supply dynamics. Future growth prospects of the property development business are therefore affected by the availability and price levels of prime sites in Hong Kong, the Mainland and overseas markets.

The Group may be subject to fines or sanctions if it does not pay land premiums or does not develop properties according to the terms of the land grant documents. Under the Mainland laws and regulations relating to idle land, if a developer fails to develop land according to the terms of the land grant contracts (including but not limited to, the payment of fees, the designated uses of land and the time for commencement and completion of development of the land), the relevant authorities may issue a warning to or impose a fine on the developer or require the developer to forfeit the land use rights. Any violation of the terms of the land grant contracts may also restrict a developer’s ability to participate, or prevent it from participating, in future land bidding. Furthermore, there are specific requirements regarding idle land and other aspects of land use rights grant contracts in many cities on the Mainland, and the local authorities are expected to enforce such rules in accordance with the instructions from the central government of the Mainland.

Circumstances leading to the repossession of land or delays in the completion of a property development may arise and if the Group’s land is repossessed, the Group will not be able to continue its property development on the forfeited land, recover the costs incurred for the initial acquisition of the repossessed land or recover development costs and other costs incurred up to the date of the repossession. Furthermore, regulations relating to idle land or other aspects of land use rights may become more restrictive or punitive in the future. If the Group does not comply with the terms of any land use rights grant contracts as a result of delays in project development, or as a result of other factors, the Group may lose the opportunity to develop the project, as well as its past investments in the land, which may materially and adversely impact its businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Properties could suffer physical damage by fire or other causes and the Group may be exposed to any potential risks associated with public liability claims, resulting in losses (including loss of rent and value of properties) which may not be fully compensated for by insurance proceeds, and such events may in turn affect the Group’s financial conditions or results of operations. There is also the possibility of other losses for which the Group may not obtain insurance at a reasonable cost or at all. Should an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occur, payment of compensation may be required and this may affect the returns on capital invested in that property. The Group would also remain liable for any debt or other financial obligation, such as committed capital expenditures, related to that property. In addition, insurance policies will have to be renewed every year and acceptable terms for coverage will have to be negotiated, thus exposing the Group to the volatility of the insurance markets, including the possibility of rate increases. Any such factors may adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Global Economy

While global economic activity continues to strengthen, there are still a number of uncertainties and risks affecting the global economy. Increasing trade tensions between the United States and certain major nations, the unclear outcomes of the negotiations of the United Kingdom (“UK”) to leave the European Union, the fluctuation of the US dollar against major currencies around the world and the continuing geopolitical tensions create uncertainties in the world economy and global financial market. A slowdown in global economic growth could lead to economic contractions in certain markets, commercial and consumer delinquencies, weakened consumer confidence and increased market volatility. The Group is a leading multinational corporation with businesses in Hong Kong, the Mainland, Singapore, the UK, continental Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States. Any adverse economic conditions in those countries and places in which the Group operates may potentially impact on the Group’s financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Industry Trends and Interest Rates

The trends in the industries in which the Group operates, including the property market sentiment and conditions, property values, the mark to market value of investment securities, the currency environment and interest rate cycles, may pose significant risks to the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects. There can be no assurance that the combination of industry trends and interest rates the Group experiences in the future will not adversely affect its businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

In particular, income from finance and treasury operations is dependent upon the capital markets, interest rate and currency environment, and the worldwide economic and market conditions, and therefore there can be no assurance that changes in these conditions will not adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects. The volatility in the financial markets may also adversely affect the income to be derived by the Group from its finance and treasury activities.

Highly Competitive Markets

The Group’s business operations face significant competition across the markets in which they operate. New market entrants and intensified price competition among existing market players could adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects. Competition risks faced by the Group include (a) an increasing number of developers undertaking property investment and development in Hong Kong, the Mainland and in other overseas markets, which may affect the market share and returns of the Group; and (b) significant competition and pricing pressure from other developers which may adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

New Business Ventures and Investments

To balance and mitigate the inherent risks associated with cyclical nature of property development, or generally, the Group is committed to balancing and strengthening its business portfolio through diversification and globalisation. The Group has taken steps to create and will continue to explore ways to create new sources of revenue by investing into new business sectors and geographical regions if appropriate in respect of investments that meet its criteria. However, there is no assurance that the Group will implement its diversification and globalisation strategies successfully or that its strategies will be able to deliver the results as anticipated. Also, expansion into new sectors and markets may expose the Group to new uncertainties including but not limited to risks relating to insufficient operating experience in certain sectors and markets, changes in governmental policies and regulations and other adverse developments affecting such sectors and markets. There is also no assurance that all investors would favour the new ventures or investments that may be made by the Group.

The Aviation Industry

Deterioration in the Financial Conditions of the Commercial Airline Industry

The financial conditions of the commercial airline industry generally may have an impact on the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects. The Group may experience (a) downward pressure on demand for the aircraft in the Group’s fleet and reduced market lease rates and effective lease margins, as well as reduced aircraft values; (b) a higher incidence of lessee defaults, lease restructurings, repossessions and airline bankruptcies and restructurings, resulting in lower lease rates and effective margins and/or increased costs due to maintenance, insurance, storage and legal costs associated with the repossession, as well as lost revenue for the time the aircraft are off lease, increased aircraft transition costs to new lessees (including refurbishment and modification of aircraft to fit the specifications of new lessees) and possibly lower lease rates from the new lessees; and (c) an inability to lease aircraft on commercially acceptable terms, resulting in lower lease margins due to aircraft not earning revenue and resulting in maintenance, insurance and storage costs. Any such factors may adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Cyclicality of Supply and Demand for Aircraft

The commercial jet aircraft leasing and sales industry has periodically experienced cycles of aircraft oversupply and undersupply. The oversupply of a specific type of aircraft in the market is likely to depress aircraft lease rates and values of that type of aircraft.

The supply and demand of aircraft is affected by various cyclical factors that are not under the Group’s control, including (a) passenger air travel demand; (b) airline profitability; (c) fuel costs and general economic condition; (d) geopolitical events; (e) outbreaks of communicable, pandemic diseases and natural disasters; (f) governmental regulations, including new Airworthiness Directives and environmental and safety regulations; (g) interest rates; (h) airline restructurings and bankruptcies; (i) cancellation or deferral of orders for aircraft; (j) delays in delivery by manufacturers; (k) the cost and availability of credit; (l) manufacturer production levels and technological innovation, including introduction of new generation aircraft; (m) retirement and obsolescence of aircraft models; (n) manufacturers merging or exiting the industry or ceasing to produce aircraft or engine types; (o) accuracy of estimates relating to future supply and demand made by manufacturers and airlines; (p) re-introduction into service of aircraft previously in storage; and (q) airport and air traffic control infrastructure constraints.

These factors may produce sharp decreases or increases in aircraft values and lease rates, and may result in lease defaults and may prevent the aircraft from being re-leased or, where applicable, sold on satisfactory terms. This would have an adverse effect on the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Effects of Fuel Costs

Fuel costs represent a major expense to companies operating within the airline industry. Fuel prices fluctuate widely depending primarily on international market conditions, geopolitical and environmental events, natural disasters, regulatory changes and currency exchange rates. Significant changes in fuel prices could have a material adverse impact on airline profitability (including the profitability of the initial lessees) and may adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Dependence on Aircraft and Engine Manufacturers

The supply of large passenger jet aircraft is dominated by a small number of airframe manufacturers, and a limited number of engine manufacturers. The Group therefore depends on these manufacturers’ success in remaining financially stable, producing aircraft and related components that meet technical and regulatory requirements and airlines’ demands and providing ongoing and reliable customer support. Should the manufacturers fail to respond appropriately to market changes, or to fulfill their contractual obligations or to produce aircraft or components that meet technical or regulatory requirements, the Group may experience (a) poor customer support from the manufacturers of aircraft and components resulting in reduced demand for a particular manufacturer’s product, creating downward pressure on demand for those aircraft and components of those types in the Group’s fleet and reduced market lease rates for aircraft of those types; (b) a reduction in the Group’s competitiveness due to deep discounting by the manufacturers, which may lead to reduced market lease rates and may adversely affect the value of the Group’s portfolio and the Group’s ability to remarket or sell some of the aircraft; and (c) poor customer support from the manufacturers of associated components resulting in disruption to the lessees’ operations and consequent loss of revenue for the lessees. Any such factors may adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Effects of Environmental Regulations

Many aspects of commercial airlines’ operations are subject to increasingly stringent federal, state, local and foreign laws protecting the environment, including the imposition of additional taxes on airlines or their passengers. Regulatory actions that may be taken in the future by the relevant governments and authorities may have a materially adverse impact on the airline industry, particularly if regulators were to conclude that emissions from commercial aircraft cause significant harm to the upper atmosphere or have a greater impact on climate change. Potential actions may include the imposition of requirements to purchase emission offsets or credits, which could require participation in emission trading, substantial taxes on emissions and growth restrictions on airline operations, among other potential regulatory actions. Any such factors may adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Effects of Terrorist Attacks, War or Armed Hostilities and Other Geopolitical Conditions

Terrorist attacks and geopolitical conditions have negatively affected the airline industry and concerns about geopolitical conditions, war or armed hostilities and further terrorist attacks could continue to negatively affect airlines (including the initial lessees) for the foreseeable future depending upon various factors including (a) higher costs to airlines due to the increased security measures; (b) losses in passenger revenue due to a decrease in travel; (c) the price and availability of jet fuel and the ability to obtain fuel hedges under current market conditions; (d) higher financing costs and difficulty in raising financing; (e) significantly higher costs of aircraft insurance coverage for future claims caused by acts of war, terrorism, sabotage, hijacking and other similar perils, and the extent to which such insurance will continue to be available or may exclude events such as radioactive dirty bombs, bio-hazardous materials and electromagnetic pulsing, which may damage or destroy aircraft; (f) the ability of airlines to reduce their operating costs and conserve financial resources; and (g) special charges recognised by some airlines, such as those related to the impairment of aircraft and other long lived assets stemming from the grounding of aircraft as a result of terrorist attacks. Any such factors may adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Infrastructure Market

Some of the investments owned by the Group (for example, gas and electricity) are subject to regulatory pricing and strict adherence must be made to the licence requirements, codes and guidelines established by the relevant regulatory authorities from time to time. Failure to comply with these licence requirements, codes or guidelines may lead to penalties, or, in extreme circumstances, amendment, suspension or cancellation of the relevant licences by the authorities. Infrastructure projects are capital intensive, and with only a few major players in the market, there is no assurance of ready buyers on disposal.

The distribution and transmission networks of the Group’s utilities investments are also exposed to supply interruptions. If a severe earthquake, storm, flood, fire, sabotage, terrorist attack or other unplanned event interrupts service, the loss of cash flow resulting from the interruption and the cost of recovery from network damage could be considerable and potentially cause poor customer perception and may also lead to claims and litigations. Moreover, some losses from events such as terrorist attacks may not be recoverable. Increases in the number or duration of supply interruptions could result in material increases in the costs associated with the operation of the distribution and transmission networks. All of these uncertain factors could have a material adverse effect on the businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects of the Group.

Currency Fluctuations

The Group is a leading multinational corporation with businesses in Hong Kong, the Mainland, Singapore, the UK, continental Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States, and is exposed to potential currency fluctuations in these countries and places in which the Group operates. The results of the Group are reported in Hong Kong dollars but its various subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures may receive revenue and incur expenses in other currencies. Any currency fluctuations on translation of the accounts of these subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures and also on the repatriation of earnings, equity investments and loans may therefore impact on the Group’s financial conditions, results of operations, asset values or liabilities.

To minimise currency risk exposure in respect of its investments in other countries, the Group generally hedges those investments with (a) currency swaps and (b) appropriate level of borrowings denominated in the local currencies. The Group has not entered into any speculative derivative transaction.

Although currency exposures have been managed by the Group, a depreciation or fluctuation of the currencies in which the Group conducts operations relative to the Hong Kong dollars could adversely affect its businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects. For instance, the volatility of the British pounds relative to the Hong Kong dollars subsequent to the referendum in the UK in favour of Brexit could affect the Group’s results of operations.

Cybersecurity

With the fast expanding adoption of Internet and networking operational technology, cyberattacks around the world are occurring at a higher frequency and intensity. The Group’s critical utility and information assets are exposed to attack, damage or unauthorised access in the cyberworld. Cybersecurity risks could have material adverse effect on the operational and business performance, as well as the business reputation of the Group.

Although the Group has not experienced any major damage to its assets or activities from cyberattacks to date, there can be no assurance that future cyberattacks or breaches of the Group’s cybersecurity will not occur and result in significant impact on the Group’s reputation, businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Strategic Partners

Some of the businesses of the Group are conducted through non-wholly owned subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures in which the Group shares control (in whole or in part) and strategic alliances had been formed by the Group with other strategic or business partners. There can be no assurance that any of these strategic or business partners will continue their relationships with the Group in the future or that the Group will be able to pursue its stated strategies with respect to its non-wholly owned subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures and the markets in which they operate. Furthermore, the joint venture partners may (a) have economic or business interests or goals that are inconsistent with those of the Group; (b) take actions contrary to the Group’s policies or objectives; (c) undergo a change of control; (d) experience financial and other difficulties; or (e) be unable or unwilling to fulfil their obligations under the joint ventures, which may affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Acquisitions

The Group has undertaken acquisition activities in the past and may continue to do so if there are appropriate acquisition opportunities in the market. Although due diligence and detailed analysis are conducted before these activities are undertaken, there can be no assurance that these can fully expose all hidden problems, potential liabilities and unresolved disputes that the target company may have. In addition, valuations and analyses on the target company conducted by the Group and by professionals alike are based on numerous assumptions, and there can be no assurance that those assumptions are correct or appropriate or that they will receive universal recognition. Relevant facts and circumstances used in the analyses could have changed over time, and new facts and circumstances may come to light as to render the previous assumptions and the valuations and analyses based thereon obsolete. Some of these acquisition activities are subject to regulatory approvals in overseas countries and there can be no assurance that such approvals will be obtained, and even if granted, that there will be no burdensome conditions attached to such approvals. The Group may not necessarily be able to successfully integrate the target business into the Group and may not be able to derive any synergy from the acquisition, leading to an increase in costs, time and resources. For acquisition activities undertaken overseas, the Group may also be exposed to different and changing political, social, legal and regulatory requirements at the local, national and international level. The Group may also need to face different cultural issues when dealing with local employees, customers, governmental authorities and pressure groups.

Impact of Local, National and International Regulations

The local business risks in different countries and cities in which the Group operates could have a material impact on the businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects. The Group has investments in different countries and cities around the world and the Group is, and may increasingly become, exposed to different and changing political, social, legal, tax, regulatory and environmental requirements at the local, national or international level. Also, new guidelines, directives, policies or measures by governments, whether fiscal, tax, regulatory, environmental or other competitive changes, may lead to an increase in additional or unplanned operating expenses and capital expenditures, increase in market capacity, reduction in government subsidies, pose a risk to the overall investment return of the Group’s businesses and may delay or prevent the commercial operation of a business with resulting loss of revenue and profit, which may adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Impact of New Accounting Standards

The International Accounting Standards Board has from time to time issued new and revised International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”). As accounting standards continue to develop, the International Accounting Standards Board may in the future issue more new and revised IFRS and the Group may be required to adopt new accounting policies which might or could have a significant impact on the Group’s financial position or results of operations.

Outbreak of Highly Contagious Disease

In 2003, there was an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (“SARS”) in Hong Kong, the Mainland and other places. The SARS outbreak had a significant adverse impact on the economies of the affected areas. The spread of Influenza and other communicable diseases from time to time have also affected many areas of the world. The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease and Zika virus also pose a significant threat to global industries. Additional outbreaks of other epidemic diseases may adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Connected Transactions

CK Hutchison Holdings Limited (“CK Hutchison”) is also listed on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (“Stock Exchange”). CK Hutchison has been deemed by the Stock Exchange to be a connected person of the Company under the Rules Governing the Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (“Listing Rules”). Although the Group believes that its relationship with CK Hutchison provides it with significant business advantages, the relationship results in various connected transactions under the Listing Rules and accordingly any transactions entered into between the Group and CK Hutchison or its subsidiaries are connected transactions, which, unless one of the exemptions is available, will be subject to compliance with the applicable requirements of the Listing Rules, including the issuance of announcements, the obtaining of independent shareholders’ approval at general meetings and disclosure in annual reports and financial statements. Independent shareholders’ approval requirements may also lead to unpredictable outcomes causing disruptions to as well as an increase in the risks of the Group’s business activities. Independent shareholders may also take actions that are in conflict with the interests of the Group.

Natural Disasters

Some of the Group’s assets and businesses, customers and suppliers are located in areas at risk of damage from earthquakes, floods and similar events and the occurrence of any of these events could disrupt the Group’s businesses and materially and adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Although the Group has not experienced any major structural damage to its property development projects or assets or facilities from earthquakes or natural disasters to date, there can be no assurance that future earthquakes or other natural disasters will not occur and result in major damage to the Group’s property development projects, or assets or facilities or on the general supporting infrastructure facilities in the vicinity, which could adversely affect the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Terrorist Threat

The Group is a leading multinational corporation with businesses in Hong Kong, the Mainland, Singapore, the UK, continental Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States. In recent years, a series of terrorist activities occurred across the globe that resulted in multiple deaths and casualties. There is no assurance that countries in which the Group operates will not have any political unrest or they will be immune from terrorist threat, and if these events occur, they may have an adverse impact on the Group’s businesses, financial conditions, results of operations or growth prospects.

Past Performance and Forward-Looking Statements

The past performance and the results of operations of the Group as contained in this website are historical in nature and past performance can be no guarantee of future results of the Group. This website may contain forward-looking statements and opinions that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ materially from expectations discussed in such forward-looking statements and opinions. Neither the Group nor the directors, employees or agents of the Group assume (a) any obligation to correct or update the forward-looking statements or opinions contained in this website; and (b) any liability in the event that any of the forward-looking statements or opinions does not materialise or turns out to be incorrect.